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Old 02-25-2004, 10:02 AM
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The Book On Insulin

Post as much info, profiles, articles, personal experiences with slin as you can. Try to give proper credit, for whoever wrote something.

The more info we get, the more we all can learn.

Post personal experiences with it to! Like:

how do you use insulin? During a cycle or for a bridge?
what type do you use?
what doesage?
Do you supplement it with anything?
What is your post injection meal?
How many times a day?
Rate it's effect (1 poor-5 excellent)
Any other personal comments?
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Old 02-25-2004, 10:03 AM
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Directions for first time insulin users (not sure who orginally wrote this one)

Insulin is the most anabolic hormone you can take. On the other hand its also one of the most dangerous for two reasons availability and ignorance. I will be the first to tell you that every time I have been hypoglycemic (when blood sugar drops to dangerous levels) its has been as a result of something I did wrong. Used responsibility and with respect for the potential sides it is quite safe and extremely effective. That being said we'll start off with what you are going to need.

Equipment:
There are several types of insulin out there but for our purposes we are only interested in two. The first being my favorite Humulin R and the other being a bit newer to the body building community Humalog.

Humulin R is the most widely used and time tested insulin in our arsenal. It has a max duration of 4hrs and its peak can been seen around 2hrs after injection. This becomes particularly important when planning out you meals for the day so keep the timetables in mind.

Humalog is a bit newer but some feel just as effective and a bit safer. Humalog has a max duration of 2hrs and its peak can be seen around 1hr after injection. When selecting to use one or the other keep in mind your schedule, meals, and physical activity for the day as it will all play a role. One other point that needs mentioning is that Humulin R is available over the counter at pretty much every pharmacy in the country for about $25 for 10ml (which will last you a very long time) and Humalog is available only through a prescription or over the black market for a price about double that of Humulin R. When approaching a pharmacist keep in mind that its a lot more convincing if you buy the needles at the same time you get the insulin. This way they are less likely to refuse to sell it to you which they have been known to do from time to time. If this should happen just continue on to the next pharmacy and despite what they tell you "you dont need a prescription" it might be their store policy to see one but legally it is not required and if you make enough of a fuss you will get what you need.

The next thing you will need is the actual needles for injection. These are not the same type that you would use for anabolics or other androgens. The type of needles you will need are U100 insulin needles. That is exactly what you need to say when are trying to buy them. A box of 100 will usually run about $15-$25 and again will last you quite a while. Be fore warned now, using a syringe labeled with cc/ml or anything other than u100 is potentially fatal. The difference between the amount of insulin used for our purpose and that which will kill you is less than 1/2 a cc.
The next two things I think you will need and I highly recommend having on you is a wrist watch with a chronograph (stopwatch) and glucose tabs and/or a can of soda. First I'll explain the wrist watch. The stop watch is to be started immediately after the injection and monitored periodically to keep track of what is in your body and how long it is active. This can also be used to determine whether or not you are feeling side effects or simply just nerves from the fear that follows using for the first time. For instance I always use Humulin R which we know has a duration of 4 hours and a peak at 2 hours. This means that the greatest effects will be felt somewhere between 1-1/2 to 2 hours after injection and then they will steadily lessen till it is no longer active 4 hours after injection. When you use a stopwatch you have an accurate record of when you felt the effects which will become more important as you get more experienced using insulin. The glucose tabs are your safety net. If you are feeling hypo (hypoglycemic) these tabs will return your blood sugar levels to a safe range where you can get some food. They are available at all pharmacies for about $1.00. I have also used a soda. Soda is high in simple carbs which act quickly when blood sugar is low and allow you to get to a safe range where you can get some food in you. Now that we've covered all the equipment needed to safely use insulin we'll move on to dosage diet and scheduling.

Dosage diet and scheduling:
Whenever you start insulin its always wise to start at a lower dose and taper up over the first couple of days of use. Insulin is still new in our community and there is a potential for becoming diabetic so dont take chances start small more is not better where insulin is concerned more is simply more fat and more dangerous. This is a schedule I use when just starting insulin:

day1: 5iu's post workout
day2: 6iu's post workout
day3: 7iu's post workout
day4: 8iu's post workout
day5: 9iu's post workout
day6: 10iu's post workout
day7: same as day 6

This concludes week once from here on out this is how I proceed. If I am going to be increasing my dose even further.

day8-10: 10iu's morning, 10iu's post workout
day11-14: 10iu's morning, 10iu's noon, 10iu's post workout
day15 and on: increase post workout dose till I start to feel symptoms of hypoglycemia and then back the dose down accordingly. THIS IS ONLY FOR ADVANCED USERS, DONT EXCEED THE DAY 7 DOSE TILL YOU GET SOME TIME UNDER YOUR BELT. I AM NOT KIDDING YOU WILL DIE!!!

Your diet will depend on the amount of slin you take per injection. The rule is 10 grams of carbs per IU of insulin. Therefore if you take 10iu's at an injection you need 100 grams of carbs. This is a bit overkill the actual figure is about 5-7 grams but its best to stick with the 10 rule while starting out. I feel that the best most accurate way to consume the proper amount of carbs after an injection is through MRP's or other shakes. The amounts of carbs on these are far more accurate than those you will find on the back of a bread bag. My meals are usually layed out like this:

7am: 10iu's insulin, shake
9am: shake
12pm: 10iu's insulin, lunch
2pm: shake
4pm: shake
6pm: workout
7pm: 10iu's insulin, shake, higher in carbs than others
9pm: dinner
11pm: safe for bed

If you'll notice there is a method to the madness above. After taking your first injection if insulin you will need a shake immediately. After this you are good for the next 2 hrs till the insulin peaks. Once you hit the 2hr mark you will need more carbs either another shake or a meal with sufficient carbs. After you have cleared the 4hr mark you will be clear from danger. Now this is all based on using Humulin R. If you are using Humalog you will need to take your first meal after injection and another "1hr" after. Then after the 2hr mark you will be safe. My shakes are made up of 1/2 pack of MetRX (berry) and 2 scoops GNC brand weight gainer (vanilla) and 16oz of whole milk. This shake has a caloric value of about 800 cals and around 50grams of protein and 150+grams of carbs. This is a good meal for those starting out. As you progress though you will want to decrease the carbs and eliminate the fat completely to maximize lean mass gains and minimize water and fat retention but for the purposes of starting out simply taking T3 will offset any fat gained. One thing to keep in mind is that T3 will reduce your sensitivity to insulin allowing you to take a higher dose but again save this till you get some more time in.

Side effects and procedures:
After injection and starting your stopwatch your first task is to get some carbs in. Next the first sides you will feel is tired. This is normal and is to be expected. You will usually feel this somewhere between 15-30 minutes after your injection. The key here is not to sleep, if you sleep you wont feel further more dangerous sides and therefore you wont be able to save your ass. The next thing you need to do is have another meal/shake at the 2hr mark. If you miss this just get it in as soon as possible. If you delay long enough you will start to feel hypo around 3 to 3-1/2 hours after injection. When this happens you will feel a sort of numbness that I can only relate to ephedrine. After this you will start to get some shakes in your hands followed by a cold sweat. Once you get to this point you are full blown hypo, the next thing that will follow will be a bit of tunnel vision and this is as far as Iíve been after this its all textbook I imagine coma will follow shortly after passing out. When you get the symptoms listed above donít hesitate. Get some soda/glucose tabs followed by a meal or shake. One other fact I neglected to mention is that a mix of carbs is necessary when consuming a meal. Simple carbs are used to quickly and complex donít kick in fast enough. A good mix is the way to go.
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Old 02-25-2004, 10:03 AM
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Acnemans Insulin FAQ
This was from the FAQs at Fitnessboard I had it saved on my computer thought I would post it.

Acnemans Insulin FAQ

what is insulin?

Insulin is a hormone secreted by the beta cells of the
pancreas that controls the metabolism and cellular uptake of
sugars, proteins, and fats. As a drug, it is used principally
to control diabetes. Insulin is not a steroid.

What type of insulin should I use for bodybuilding?

Humulin R and Humulog are the only insulins I recommend
because they act fast and are out of the body fastest(this
makes them the safest). I have never used Humalog but
understand that aside from quicker onset and half-life it is
essentially the same.

Why do I want to use insulin?

Insulin has been called "Anabolicus Maximus" by some gurus of
the bodybuilding world. Insulin can give you greater gains
than you have ever had using anabolics alone. Insulin, in
combination with androgens and resistance exercise, may
trigger maturation of satellite muscle cells (small, more or
less useless cells that are held in reserve, which do not
contribute to muscular strength) into mature muscle cells that
do contribute to muscular size and strength. How freakin cool
is that. Hyperinsulinemia has been shown to stimulate protein
synthesis in isolated limb infusion experiments , these
anabolic properties seem to be the result of insulin binding
to IGF-1 receptors.

If insulin is so great why aren't all diabetics huge?

Diabetics have a disease and use insulin to replace endogenous
insulin that they cannot produce. Bodybuilders use insulin in
a totally different way. Some diabetic bodybuilders manipulate
their insulin use to use insulin for muscle growth and get
good results but changing dosages and times of injection of
insulin for diabetics can be dangerous.

Isn't taking insulin dangerous?

ummm YES! Before deciding to take insulin here is what you
have to do to be safe.

Insulin safety

1. Do not use slin alone have a training partner or girlfriend
who's not using slin hang around with you from the time you
take the slin to about 2.5/4 hrs after.

2. Tell you're partner to look for anything out of the norm
for your personality and have a list of questions like your
ssn or address etc that they can ask you. Don't joke around,
and answer them without shit, because if you cant answer or
refuse to answer it could be a sign of hypoglycemia(low blood
sugar). Symptoms of hypoglycemia include disorientation,
headache, drowsiness, weakness, dizziness, fast heartbeat,
sweating, tremor, and nausea.

3. If you cant/wont answer or are feeling the symptoms of
hypoglycemia they should be prepared to feed you carbs like
pancake syrup, coke, sugary stuff. I bought glucose tablets at
walmart. kinda like candy but gets in the blood faster and
dissolve quickly. these are for diabetics ask at the pharmacy.

4. Have your partner know that if they suspect low blood sugar
and cant convince or force you to consume carbs until your
better. CALL 911 and ask for an ambulance and tell the truth
to the operator... that they suspect you are in insulin shock
and explain when they get there(the ambulance guys not the
cops) that you are not diabetic but using insulin for anabolic
purposes. Have the type of slin, the dosage and carbs consumed
recorded to give the paramedic. They will save your life. Then
you refuse transport to the hospital and eat. It might be a
good idea to make sure your house is "clean" before every
workout just in case the bad thing happens and the cops ask a
lot of questions.

5. Why so much preparation for the possible problem?? insulin
can kill you in minutes if you go down!!

6. Take the carbs and protein together immediately after
injecting the slin(dont take chances trying to time out 15 min
after injection). Take the protein with the carbs because the
protein is pushed into the muscles with the slin also(creatine
too).

7. Before an hour passes you should eat a normal balanced
meal(high protein low fat with carbs).

8. Consume another small high protein medium carb low fat meal
at 2.5 hours after the injection. Congrats you lived.(keep
some gatoraid on hand just to make sure because your not gonna
have a lifeline)

9. YAWN... Don't go to sleep within 4/6 hours of using insulin
since you can develop hypoglycemia while asleep and not have
warning signs.

Ok I'm not scared I still want to use insulin...

Where do i get it?

Humulin R is over the counter (OTC) just about everywhere.
Humulog is new and is still a prescription drug is some
places. BUT... Insulin is NOT a controlled substance and will
not be confiscated by customs or postal inspectors so order it
online if you cant get it locally. Its legal.

Where do I keep it? (STORAGE)

The FDA requires that all preparations of insulin contain
instructions to keep in a cold place and to avoid freezing.
The refrigerator is a good spot. Unrefrigerated insulin can be
kept of 28 days as long as it stays in a cool and dark place.

Where/how do I inject insulin?

The best sites for insulin injection are in the subcutaneous
tissue of the abdomen(avoid the area close to bellybutton)
.Usually, you should not inject within 1 inch of the same site
within 1 month. The arms and legs can also be used, but
insulin uptake from these sites is less uniform. Insulin
should be injected subcutaneously only with a U-100 insulin
syringe. "B-D ultra-fine" insulin syringes are good. Insulin
syringes are available without a prescription in many states.
If you cant purchase the syringes at a pharmacy, you can mail
order them. Using a syringe other than a specific insulin
syringe is dangerous since it will be difficult to measure out
the correct dosage.

How much insulin should I take?

I recommend never using over 10IU. 10IU is enough to make you
grow.
In general Dosages used are usually 1 IU per 20 pounds of lean
bodyweight. So a 220lb bodybuilder with 9% body-fat would use
10iu of insulin(aprox200lb lean mass/20 = 10iu). But even
experienced insulin users shouldn't use max dosage at the
beginning of an insulin cycle. First-time users should start
at a low dosage and gradually work up. For example, first
begin with 2 IU and then increase the dosage by 1 IU every
consecutive workout until you reach your calculated dose or
determine a maximum personal dose(some people are more
sensitive to insulin sides like hypoglycemia). This will allow
the athlete to determine a dosage he can safely use. Insulin
dosages can vary significantly among athletes and are
dependent upon insulin sensitivity and the use of other drugs.
Athletes using growth hormone and thyroid might have higher
insulin requirements.

When do I take insulin?

It is my opinion that you should only take insulin after a
work out, never before or when not working out, because before
a work out you could crash and die during the workout and when
your not working out it makes you fat. Some people disagree
with this. IF you want, get some info from them and try it.
But remember I told ya so.

When do i eat after using insulin?

Immediately!!! DO NOT TRY TO TIME YOUR CONSUMPTION OF CARBS!!
You should immediately take a carbohydrate AND protein drink
after taking you're insulin. I've stated this twice because it
is very important. Even experienced insulin users can get a
surprise now and then.
Eat a meal at about an hour after using insulin. Consume
another small high protein medium carb low fat meal at 2.5
hours after the injection. keep some gatoraid on hand just to
make sure. Remember that insulin can still work much later so
be careful and eat if you feel hypoglycemia symptoms.

What do I eat after using insulin?

Some people recommend a zero fat intake for 4 hours after
taking insulin. I do not disagree with this. But if your
bulking you can be a little relaxed on this. But high fat
intake after taking insulin can lead to high body fat.
The carb/protein drink taken after the insulin shot should
contain AT LEAST 10 grams of carbs and 5 grams of quality
protein per IU of insulin injected with little or no
fat(creatine taken in this drink is optional but works great).
Before an hour passes you should eat a normal balanced
meal(high protein low fat with carbs). At 2.5 hours after the
injection you should Consume a small meal. keep some gatoraid
on hand just to make sure. Remember that insulin can still
work much later so be careful and eat if you feel hypoglycemia
symptoms. Once again i've stated this twice because it is
important.

***Some insulin users recommend far less carbs than I have
stated above. This is a personal decision you will have to
make since it could be very dangerous...Even deadly! My
opinion is to take the carbs and learn to diet after bulking
if you gain too much fat.***

How long should/can I take insulin?

Short cycles please because you could have side effects. It is
suspected that you could become an insulin dependant diabetic
but I have never seen proof, but is it worth the risk? I would
only use it a few times a week(maximum 4 on 3 off) for no more
than 3/4 weeks.

What should I avoid while using insulin?

Do not use alcohol. It lowers blood sugar, and you may
experience dangerously low blood sugar levels.

Do not change your workout in the middle of a cycle of
insulin. Changes in how much you exercise can change the
amount of insulin you can tolerate and maintain blood sugar
levels.

Do not take any recreational drugs at the same time as insulin
since they could mask symptoms of hypoglycemia.

Do not change the brand of insulin or syringe that you are
using without first talking to a doctor or pharmacist. Some
brands of insulin and syringes are interchangeable, while
others are not.

Do not use insulin if you are sick with a cold, flu, or fever.
These illnesses may change your insulin requirements..

Do not use any insulin that is discolored, looks thick, has
particles in it, or looks different from the way it looked
when you bought it.

Do not use OTC drugs that will cause drowsiness within 6 hours
of using insulin.

Do not go to sleep within 4/6 hours of using insulin since you
can develop hypoglycemia while asleep and not have warning
signs.

What are the possible side effects of insulin besides
hypoglycemia?

Rarely, people have allergic reactions to insulin. Seek
emergency medical attention if you experience an allergic
reaction (difficulty breathing; closing of your throat;
swelling of your lips, tongue, or face; or hives).

Hypothetically, one could become an insulin dependent diabetic
if insulin is used too long.

references
http://www.meso-rx.com/steroid-profiles/insulin.htm

"Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary," Copyright © 2001 by
F. A. Davis Co., Phil., PA
http://www.getbulky.com/Info/Steroid_Info/insulin.html
http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/catinsulin.htm

Elisabeth R. Barton-Davis, Daria I. Shoturma, Antonio Musaro,
Nadia Rosenthal, and H. Lee Sweeney. Viral mediated expression
of insulin-like growth factor I blocks the aging-related loss
of skeletal muscle function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
22;95(26):15603-7, 1998

http://www.subscriberx.com/.SRX?Ser...Dialect=English
http://www.rxlist.com/frame/display.cgi?drug=HUMULIN
http://www.lillydiabetes.com/Produc...ityProfiles.cfm
AnabolicDiabetic from elite fitness
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Old 02-25-2004, 10:03 AM
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This article is from Anabolic Extreme, this one just scares me, I don't know about taking these 2 together.

DNP and Insulin Part 1
The perfect ďoffĒ cycle
by Jason Mueller

Iím sure by now that everyone is familiar with the use of insulin of bodybuilding circles. Without a doubt, insulin use is the greatest advance in the sport since GH in the early 80ís. I would say that the massive size increases you have seen in the sport over the past five years have been a direct result of insulin use, more so than anything else. Insulin can also kill you.

Most of you are probably aware of DNPís use in bodybuilding. For those of you who arenít familiar with DNP, which by the way stands for 2,4-Dinitrophenol, it is an unbelievable fat burning drug. If youíve ever wondered how a pro bodybuilder drops down from say, 280 to 225-230 in a very short period of time, itís probably because that particular individual is using DNP with a host of other drugs like thyroid, clenbuterol, etc. In fact, this bodybuilder might develop thyroid problems and balloon up and down in weight, even missing shows or looking horrible at others. Man, good thing this isnít a real person weíre talking about. Anyway, I digress. DNP is the greatest thing to come along in dieting since, well, I guess itís about the only good thing to come along that I can think of. And, DNP will kill you quicker than insulin.

Before we continue on, letís get real for a moment. Please do not use either insulin or DNP. Iím not joking that either of them can kill you, in fact the bottle of DNP Iím looking at right now lists the many horrible consequences of just touching the stuff. Be warned that you are taking your life in your hands by using either insulin or DNP. DNP is used in bug sprays for Christís sake. Now that I got that off my chest, we can continue.

Iím really not going to bore you with long and complicated explanations of how both DNP and insulin work in the body, but I do need to touch on the subject. Many of the articles written about DNP refer to itís abilities to block the actions of insulin. This is true only in a limited sense. Insulin is released by pancreatic beta cells in response to elevated ATP/ADP ratios. Briefly, when your blood sugar levels rise, your ATP/ADP levels become elevated, inhibiting ATP sensitive potassium ion channels (KATP), altering the membrane potential of the pancreatic cells and causing insulin release. The key point here is that insulin will not be released unless ATP levels within the cells increase. DNP interferes with the protein complex ATP synthase, which allows for the synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi (inorganic phosphate). Since DNP interferes with a key step in ATP production, obviously ATP levels never elevate within any cell, including pancreatic beta cells. Hence, the feedback system through the KATP channels (at least in regards to insulin release), is disabled, and you effectively make yourself a diabetic while on DNP.

The primary action of insulin in the body is to drive glucose into muscle and liver cells (stored as glycogen) which is converted into ATP. ATP again? Since DNP reduces ATP production significantly, it again interferes with insulin by preventing a significant amount of the glucose that is pushed into cells by insulin from ever being used as energy (at least by the cell). So, what is happening to all of this energy that is being expended through the electron transport chain to turn ADP and Pi into ATP? Itís thrown off as heat, and lots of it. In fact, because the amount of heat produced is a direct correlation of how much DNP is consumed, taking too much DNP will cook you from the inside out. Let me repeat this. Taking too much DNP will fry you like an egg. It doesnít sound like a pleasant way to die, does it? DNP is not one of those, hey a little did me good, more will do me better kind of substances. A little will do you good and more will burn your ass up.

So, now we understand the ways in which DNP interferes with some of the actions of insulin. Another action of insulin (thank you God) is that it promotes transport of amino acids from the bloodstream into muscles and other cells. Insulin also increases the rate at which amino acids are incorporated into protein. Although DNP does block the release of insulin and prevents a key component of the electron transport chain (ATP synthase, remember?), it does nothing to prevent the aforementioned extremely anabolic affect of insulin. Therefore, when you use DNP, you should be administering insulin at the same time. The exogenous insulin will still work its anabolic magic while the DNP burns off reams of body fat through the resultant metabolic increase.

Many so called Gurus are recommending incorporating DNP as a component to any steroid cycle to ensure that weight gained is purely muscle and not fat. While this certainly works great on paper, application is a little different. I am a firm believer in training and eating to grow while on a heavy cycle (and what other kind is there?) Anyone who has any kind of contact with any professional bodybuilder in the off season will see that the chicken and rice thing has been thrown out of the window and that junk food rules the day. Their drug use is of such magnitude that eating clean would simply not supply the necessary calories for growth. Have you ever tried to consume 5000+ calories while on a low fat diet? Good luck. So, while they are certainly growing like a weed in the off season, they also tend to put on a bit of fat. Big deal. Iím going to let you in on a little secret. The only time those guys look like that is when they are on stage. Many people assume that the top guys are in shape all year round because they never see any pictures of them in the off season. And with good reason. Most (not all, but most) bodybuilders look like a chipmunk with a walnut in each cheek in the off season. These fellow tend to get a bit fat and bloated from their diets and heavy drug use. Now taking DNP while cycling will certainly help keep you leaner. It will also make you weaker, uncomfortable, and more quick to tire from a workout. Obviously not a good combination for consuming mass quantities while kicking ass in the gym is it? Therefore, we need a schedule for DNP administration. Iím a firm believer in down time from cycles (another article me thinks?), not because of receptor down regulation but from other factors. I propose a system where the athlete uses AS for 10 weeks, similar to the system advocated by Paul Borreson, followed by three weeks of down time. During this down time, 24 days actually, the athlete uses DNP in conjunction with insulin and T3, losing body fat while maintaining lean body mass. The dosing schedule would be as follows:

Last day of AS administration
Days 1-8 DNP with insulin and T3
Days 9-16 DNP is not used, insulin use continues, T3 continues for days 9-12
Days 17-24 DNP with insulin and T3
BACK ON THE JUICE!!

Psychologically this isnít the easiest system to use. Most guys who take AS never want to come off because they canít deal with the trauma of not feeling ďjuicedĒ. You know that feeling you have that if your car were flip over twenty times in a horrible flaming wreck it wouldnít matter because youíre on and you wouldnít get hurt. Thatís the feeling Iím referring to, the feeling that Iím strong, Iím invincible and on top of the world. However, are you taking gear to give yourself some false sense of security or because you want to take your body to previously unseen levels? Every person Iíve seen who takes time off between cycles (weíre talking three weeks here people) is healthier, bigger, and in better shape than those who donít. Additionally, by staying leaner in the off season, you have less fat to lose before a show, which will result is less muscle catabolism while dieting. I think weíll see the day soon where bodybuilders are staying much leaner in the off season by incorporating a system like the one Iíve described above, and getting on stage much bigger.
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Old 02-25-2004, 10:04 AM
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DNP and Insulin Part 2
by Jason Mueller

In the last issue of Anabolic Extreme, we introduced the concept of using DNP and insulin in between steroid cycles to maintain size and reduce body fat. In Part II of this series, we'll further examine the use of these drugs and attempt to give you answers to the questions left unanswered in Part I.

Without a doubt, the biggest question people had after the first article was, "Where do I obtain DNP?" I know when people ask this question they are basically asking for an address or phone number they can call an order DNP like a pizza. I'm sorry if that's what you wanted, because it doesn't work that way. DNP is not a chemical that is very widely used, and the industries that use it are very specialized. For example, DNP is used in bug sprays. DNP is also used as a wood treatment. Railroad ties have DNP applied to them to help preserve them. Not very many companies sell DNP because it is considered a hazardous material and companies have to apply to the Department of Transportation to become exempt from certain regulations regarding the shipping and transport of these materials. So, what we are left with is a situation where there exists a very small need for DNP and it can only be obtained from a few companies. Understand that when you call these companies, you're usually dealing with someone who has a background in chemistry and are not easily conned into selling a dangerous substance to Joe Bodybuilder. However, that doesn't mean it can't be done!

The first thing I would do if I were a person seeking DNP is find out what companies actually sell this substance. There are a couple of different ways to do this. One, you can search the chemical companies on the net. There are several different chemical sites that will actually locate companies that sell given chemicals. This takes time and perseverance but is a fairly good way to locate any substance you might be seeking. The other way is to find out what companies can even ship hazardous materials through carriers like UPS. Again, these companies have to file with the Department of Transportation and be granted an exemption from certain regulations. Since this is public information, it's possible to get the list of exempt companies from the Department of Transportation. The regulations from which these companies are exempted are 49 CFR Parts 172 Subparts E and F, 173.25(a) (1) - (4), 174.3, 174.81, 175.3, 177.801, 177.848 and Part 173, Subpart E. What does this mean? How the hell should I know? What I do know is that if you write to the following address, you can get a list of companies that can ship these materials through normal carriers.

Associate Administrator for Hazardous Materials Safety, Research and Special Programs Administration
Department of Transportation Washington D.C., 20590
Attention DHM-31

Now the great thing about a substance like DNP is that it's very hard to get. Which means that the average guy probably won't be able to obtain it. My feelings on DNP are that if you are smart enough to obtain it, you are smart enough to use it properly. However, I have noticed that some boards have posts from individuals offering to sell DNP capsules. DO NOT BUY DNP FROM THESE INDIVIDUALS!!! Let's get real for a moment. The dosage of DNP that can kill you is not significantly higher than that which is used to lose body fat. Since we are dealing with very small amounts of material, it's vitally important that the utmost care is taken when measuring DNP. Personally, my life is worth enough to me that I'm not going to trust some strangers skill in very precise measuring, unless that person has gone to school for years like a pharmacist. Once you've obtained the DNP, what's next? DNP is packed wet, moistened to about 20-25% H20 by weight. Because it is considered a volatile substance, it's packed wet to keep it exploding in transport. Before we can encapsulate the DNP, we have to remove as much of the water as possible. For the purposes of this article, I tested a small sample of DNP to determine its volatility. I took a very amount and tried to ignite it under a flame. No dice, it simply melted. I also took a small amount and subjected it to forceful compression, which is a fancy way of saying I hit it with a hammer. Still nothing. So, I assume that DNP is relatively stable. At the same time, I wouldn't try and dry it out in my oven. The most effective way I've found is to simply leave it out in the sun for a day. I've also used a desk lamp when the sun wasn't an option. Despite the results of my two simple tests, I still respect DNP and take great care in drying it out. You should too.

In order for the DNP to be measured out properly, you'll need to obtain a very accurate scale. The scale I use is accurate to 0.1 g. You can obtain scales that are more precise but they are tremendously expensive and are unnecessary for our purposes. The easiest way to find an acceptable scale is visit a smoke shop. Hopefully, everyone reading this article is familiar with the metric system. DNP is best used at a ratio of 4-5 mg per kg of bodyweight. Slightly higher dosages are more effective at burning fat, but come at the expense of an increase in discomfort and are generally impractical for most people. Knowing that 1 lb equals 2.2 kg, a 220 lb bodybuilders weighs 100 kg. Therefore, this bodybuilder would want to consume approximately 400-500 mg of DNP per day. Ideally this is consumed in two equally divided doses, one taken at about 5 p.m., the other immediately before bed. Since most of you will be using a scale that is similar to the one mentioned above, it's impossible to measure DNP with precision accuracy. Realistically capsules will range in potency from 150-300 mg per capsules. However, this is accurate enough for our purposes.

When handling DNP, the utmost in care must be taken not to destroy you house. DNP stains like nothing I've ever seen before. Its fumes will also stain just as bad as the actual powder, so you must store dried DNP in a fashion that does not allow the fumes to escape. Just to give you an example, when I first starting using DNP, I stored my dried out powder on the far corner of my kitchen counter in a flat Pyrex dish sealed in two hefty trash bags. It wasn't before very long that the entire corner of my kitchen started taking on a yellowish hue from the escaping fumes. It's best to store DNP inside a sealed Ziploc bag inside a sealed Tupperware container. When handling the actual powder, cover everything in the immediate vicinity with plastic! Wear gloves and immediately throw them away outside along with any other protective material. If you are lax in your handling of DNP, everyone will notice because your home will be stained a nice urine yellow.

DNP's Side Effects
Once you start taking DNP, the side effects begin. What follows is a listing of the joys of taking DNP.

Sweating
The first time you take DNP, you prepare yourself for some excessive sweating. Believe me when I tell you that no amount of hyperbole can prepare you for the actual ordeal you are beginning. By the second day of your DNP cycle, you should be feeling fairly moist. By day three, it's as if someone is twisting you like a wet washcloth, squeezing all of the water out of you. During my first cycle of DNP, I was working in a job that required formal attire. I had to lie to everyone at work and tell them I was very sick and feverish for five days while I was drenched in sweat. Fortunately now I work at home and am able to sweat like a pig in the comfort of my own house.

It's vitally important to drink copious amounts of water while on DNP to avoid dehydration from the excessive sweating induced by DNP. It's also important to stay as cool as possible at night while sleeping. Keep your house as cold as possible and aim at a fan at yourself at night.

Discoloration of Bodily Fluids
From the anecdotal reports we've received, everyone experiences this side effect to one degree or another. Urine becomes a dark yellow, sweat secretions stain clothes yellow, and semen takes on a yellowish tinge. Although the discoloration of bodily fluids is not harmful in and of itself, it can be quite irritating when you've managed to ruin half your shirts and stain your carpet. When I take DNP, I take care not to wear light colored clothing, especially whites. During my first DNP cycle, I ruined several white shirts by staining the collars and armpits of the shirts yellow. Additionally I managed to ruin brand new carpet in my home by laying on it while I was sweating. Unbelievably, it left yellow stains on the carpet that I cannot get out. Finally, I have carpeted bathrooms that are now stained with yellow dots from the shower water bouncing off my skin and onto the floor. DNP users should take care around any fabrics and take necessary precautions to avoid ruining them by allowing them to come into contact with bodily secretions. Once you've stained any material yellow, it's probably not coming out.

Lack of Energy/Lethargy
Obviously, any substance that interferes with your normal production of ATP is going to cause extreme lethargy. Please refer to Article I in the archives section for a detailed explanation of how DNP works in the body. By day three of a DNP cycle it becomes difficult to make it through a normal days activities. Most users will find it difficult to continue on their normal workout schedule due to the extreme lethargy experienced while using DNP. This is one of the primary reasons why DNP cycles are kept very short.

DNP Cycles
DNP cycles are created out of a need to balance the benefits of DNP with the many unpleasant side effects of the drug. For the dosing schedule of DNP, please refer to Part I of this article in the archives section. The eight-day cycles allow for significant fat loss to occur while allowing the user to recover from the trauma of using the drug. Most individuals find themselves at the end of their rope, so to speak, at the end of the eight days. Additionally, longer cycles might result in muscle catabolism as a result of decreased ATP levels within the muscle cell and an inability for the user to effectively train with weights. The dosing schedule advocated in Part I of this article allows for two brief DNP cycles during a "cleaning out" period from anabolics. Not only does this help keep bodyfat levels low, but the anabolic rebound effect experienced after a DNP cycle helps maintain lean body mass while off steroids.

Insulin
Insulin therapy is crucial to achieve the massive size exhibited by today's professional bodybuilders. However, extreme caution must be exercised when using insulin to avoid a dangerous drop in blood sugars. Compounding this problem is the fact that significant amounts of insulin must be used to achieve the desired effect. In my research, I've seen very few articles accurately state the amount of insulin that should be used to induce anabolism. Most articles quote figures that are next to useless, in the range of 1-3 iu's a few times a day. Realistically, insulin is most effective when used in the 30-40 iu's a day range, with some professional bodybuilders using 3 times that amount!

Carbohydrates must be consumed every time a dose of insulin is administered. A good rule of thumb is to consume 10 grams of carbohydrates for every 1 iu of insulin that is used. Since most doses should be in the 10 iu range, you must consume 100 grams of carbohydrate to protect yourself from hypoglycemia. These carbs should consist of a combination of simple and complex carbs. A few examples of this would be eating a banana with rice or drinking fruit juice with a baked potato. It's imperative that you always have an emergency source of simple carbohydrates on you at all times, whether it be a soft drink, candy bar, or tube of glucose paste. It's also a good idea to inform the people around you that you are using insulin so they know what to do if you start acting funny. Simply tell people that you have been diagnosed as a diabetic and go over the symptoms of getting "low" with them. I go so far as to wear a medic alert bracelet stating I'm a diabetic. Lastly, you should obtain a glucagon pen in case you really get in trouble. Glucagon has the opposite effect of insulin and will cause a massive release of glycogen from your liver and muscle cells.

While insulin will certainly cause anabolism, it also has a tendency to make you fat. The dosing schedule described in Part I of this article solves that dilemma. When insulin is used during a steroid cycle, the fat burning properties of the steroids keeps fat gain to a minimum. When it's used during the cleaning out period, the simultaneous use of DNP will actually cause a reduction in bodyfat while the insulin keeps the loss of lean body mass at a minimum.

Accessory Supplements and Drugs
While using DNP and insulin, some accessory drugs and supplements are required to ensure the safety and effectiveness of these substances. What follows is a list of these supplements and drugs, along with a brief explanation of each.

Anti-Oxidants
Anti-oxidants are of particular importance when taking DNP. In the early 1900's when DNP was used as a dieting drug in this country, a very small percentage of women talking the drug ended up with cataracts. Taking anti-oxidants like vitamin C and vitamin E are vitally important to reduce any risk of developing cataracts and to reduce the damage caused by the increased production of free radicals. Vitamin C can also be beneficial due to its cortisol suppressing abilities when taken in high dosages so consume about 10 grams a day in divided dosages. Vitamin E should be supplemented at a rate of about a 1000 iu's per day.

Glycerol
Glycerol has been shown in some studies to aid in muscle hydration. Dehydration is always an issue when using DNP due to the extreme sweating it causes. Even slight dehydration can cause catabolism in muscle cells, so staying properly hydrated becomes vitally important when using an agent like DNP. Use 3 tbsp a day in divided dosages and try to consume a gallon of water per day.

Carbohydrate Drinks
As stated earlier, bodybuilders using insulin to induce anabolism always run the risk of dropping blood glucose to dangerous levels. Carbohydrate drinks or supplements like Carboplex are quick, efficient ways to ensure you are getting the necessary carbohydrates you need every time you administer insulin. Shoot for 10 grams of carbs for every iu of insulin used.

T3 Thyroid
DNP use will cause a significant decrease in the production of thyroid hormones as your body attempts to counter its significant increase in temperature. As such, supplemental doses of T3 thyroid become crucial to maximize the effectiveness of DNP's fat burning characteristics. T3, available as Cynomel in Mexico, should be used at a rate of 25-50 mcg per day. It's also possible to use triatricol, available over the counter as a dietary supplement here in the US, failing acquisition of Cytomel or Cynomel. Triatricol should be supplemented at a rate of 1000-2000 mcg per day.

Chromium Picolinate
Chromium Picolinate is a chelated form of chromium, an essential co-factor for the proper function of insulin in the body. Chromium increases the absorbability of insulin, helping to reduce body fat and build lean muscle. Most people suffer from deficient levels of this mineral since most foods do not contain chromium. Athletes should supplement chromium picolinate at 200 mcg per day.

DNP and insulin can be combined synergistically for a powerful anabolic/lipotropic combination. Athletes considering the use of these substances must be made aware of all the potential side effects and dangers associated with these drugs. If you are considering using either of these substances, please carefully consider the information presented in this two part series. Hopefully we will help you minimize the risks and enjoy more of the benefits of these powerful drugs.
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Old 02-25-2004, 10:04 AM
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another from anabolic extreme.

Insulin: The Most Anabolic Hormone
by Grendel

Look back through picture archives of bodybuilding and you will be struck by a startling fact. In the last half-decade bodybuilders have been getting much larger much quicker. Certain professionals have added twenty pounds to their contest weight in one season, after having seemingly reached a plateau. The bodybuilding audience loves to hear that this weight gain is due to some secret drug or some newly discovered gene therapy. Elaborate theories are developed to explain these rapid weight gains and the professionals themselves are not helpful; they claim that it's the new X-brand supplement that's doing it and leave it at that.

The truth is that bodybuilders have discovered the most anabolic hormone produced by the body, insulin. Additionally, insulin has the benefit of being not only legal and over the counter in most states, but it is very cheap. A bottle costs less then thirty dollars and there is no need to worry about counterfeits. By correctly using insulin, in conjunction with human growth hormone and anabolic steroids, modern professionals have added pounds of mass onto seemingly stagnant physiques.

This chapter will give a brief overview of insulin and the methods by which its anabolic action is exerted. We will outline how to correctly and safely use insulin both to gain size and to prepare for a contest (or simply diet).

Insulin: The Overview
Insulin is a peptide hormone, secreted by the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Insulin promotes glucose utilization, protein synthesis, and regulates the metabolism of sugar. Insulin travels until it reaches receptor sites on cells. At these sites insulin facilitates the transport of glucose and amino acids across the cell membrane to be used inside the cell for energy and protein synthesis. This is insulin's anabolic effect, not only in super-saturating the cells with nutrients, but also helping to volumize the cell.

Insulin Safety:
There are significant risks that accompany the use of insulin. The greatest risk is an over-dose of insulin, which leads to hypoglycemic shock. This is not an overdose in the typical sense of the word; in this case it means that too much insulin was administered for the amount of glucose in the bloodstream. To this end, it is important to choose the correct type of insulin and to know when it peaks and the effective period of action of the drug in your body. This information is provided later in this chapter.

The symptoms of insulin shock are easy to recognize.

Distress is relatively rapid, usually in a matter of minutes.

Hunger.

Sweating.

Cold, clammy feeling.

Paleness.

Trembling, anxiety.

Rapid heartbeat.

Feeling of weakness or faintness.

Irritability and change in mood or personality.

Loss of consciousness.

Treatment:

Feed the person a source of quickly absorbed sugar. If the person is conscious, table sugar, fruit juice, honey, a non-diet soft drink, or any other available sugar source will do. If the person is unconscious, do not try to force sugar or liquid down his throat. Honey, granulated sugar, or a special capsule (such as D-glucose) containing concentrated sugars, which some diabetics carry, can be carefully placed under the tongue where it is absorbed into the body. However, this may be difficult to do.

There is another rapid form of intervention that anyone using insulin should know about; a glucagon pen. Injectable glucagon is a hormone, normally produced in the pancreas, which has effects opposite to those of insulin. It is commonly used to treat hypoglycemia or low blood sugar. It may also be used to relax parts of the gastrointestinal tract for certain examinations. It is not a controlled substance. In the event of the onset of hypoglycemia, this emergency injection will pull your blood sugar back up. If you are using insulin, you should have one of these pens with you at all times.

Take the person to a hospital emergency room as quickly as possible. Severe insulin reactions can be fatal. Do not be afraid of getting into "trouble", the use of insulin is legal. You will certainly get a lecture about how crazy it is to use insulin, but you will not be arrested or detained in anyway.

It is extremely important to have someone who you can trust monitor you when you are using insulin. They should be aware of the signs of insulin shock as well as the course of action to follow in the event that you do slip into a hypoglycemic state. Some insulin users will go so far as to purchase a medic alert bracelet that indicates them as a diabetic in the even that they pass out in public.

During a bulking phase, when calorie intake is deliberately high, insulin shock is not likely to be a problem assuming that post injection nutrition is precise (as outlined later in the chapter). In the even that you begin to feel any of the above symptoms immediately begin to consume the most simple sugars you can find, particularly look for glucose polymers and dextrose. Avoid fructose, as it is ineffective at raising blood sugar levels rapidly.

In the even that you are using insulin in dieting, do not be afraid to "blow your diet" by eating candy if you feel your blood sugar getting dangerously low. Your diet is not worth your life.

Types of Insulin:
There are three important characteristics that differentiate the available types of modern insulin. To properly use insulin in bodybuilding it is important to know the following characteristics:

Onset:
the time it takes the injected insulin to reach the blood stream and begin to work.
Peak:
the time period in which the insulin is working it's hardest to lower the blood sugar.
Duration:
the length of time the insulin will be working in the bloodstream. It is important to remember that insulin is an indiscriminate storage hormone. It doesn't care if its storing fat or glucose. Therefore fat intake should be as low as possible during the effective period of the insulin in the body. This will help prevent excessive fat gain.

For bodybuilding purposes we will only be concerned with three types of insulin; Humalin "R", Humalin "N" and Humalog are the most useful types of insulin. The other varieties are mixes of the above types in set ratios.

Humalin "N" is the longest acting insulin; it is active in the body for 24 hours. Additionally, it peaks several times throughout the day. Humalin "N' is useful in the high calorie off-season when there will always be an abundant supply of glucose. However, even the most dedicated bodybuilder who is eating many small meals may run into serious trouble in the insulin peak corresponds to a period of low blood sugar. Also, the long duration of Humalin "N' means that the bodybuilder must adhere to a low fat diet throughout the day, which is incongruously with the eating necessary to achieve brutal size.

Humalin "R" is known as the rapid insulin. The manufacturers claim that this type of insulin is active in the body for up to six hours; in reality it's closer to four and a half hours. The onset time of "R" is roughly thirty minutes and the drug peaks in one and a half to two and a half hours after injection.

Humalog is the fastest acting insulin. It has duration of about 2 hours, peaks in fifteen minutes, and is ideal for bodybuilding purposes because it is out of the body quickly. The speed at which Humalog works is beneficial because it allows us more precise control and lets us know exactly when food needs to be consumed.

Insulin Injection Procedure:
Insulin can be injected intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously. Injection insulin into the veins is creepy, but safe. However, it is not necessary to do this, as injection insulin into muscle or under the skin is just as effective.

The injection site, exercise, and the accuracy of the dosage measurement, the depth of injection and by environmental temperatures, can affect insulin absorption. To obtain consistency in daily insulin absorption and action, you should vary injection sites within the same anatomical region. The abdomen provides an excellent area for consistent absorption of insulin, whereas the leg and arm areas are often affected more by exercise. Repeated injection in the same area may cause a delay in absorption whereas massaging the site of injection may lead to an increased rate of absorption. Insulin should be injected at a 90-degree angle using an insulin syringe (25 unit, 30 unit, 50 unit, or 100 unit size) or with an insulin pen. If redness, pain, or lumps are noted at the injection site, this area should be avoided until the problem goes away.

Be sure to follow proper sterilization procedures. Wipe down the injection area with alcohol. The insulin needle is very thin so bleeding should be minimal. However, press a swab of cotton soaked in alcohol over the injection site after you withdraw the needle. This will protect almost entirely against infection.

An increase in blood flow to an injection site will increase the rate that insulin is absorbed. So, exercise will cause insulin to be absorbed more rapidly, because blood flow has increased to the exerted muscle groups. You will need to either inject less insulin or eat more carbohydrates after exercise. Rubbing the injected area increases blood flow, and hence, absorption.

Post Injection Meals and Supplements:
Depending on the onset time of the insulin type you are using you have varying lengths of time in which to ingest the post-insulin meal. Generally your post insulin meals should follow these guidelines.

60-80 grams of a good quality protein powder. Whey protein is ideal. This is taken immediately after the injection.

7 grams of simple carbohydrates (not fructose as it does not raise blood sugar quickly enough) per IU of insulin injected. Every 15-20 minutes after the first shot, take a few glucose tablets. This is will increase the amount of glucose available to your body for storage.

200 mg of chromium picolinate (this is optional).

200 mg of lipoic acid (this is optional).

30 mg vanadyl sulfate (this is optional).

2000 mg of hydroxy citric acid (this is optional).

5-7 grams of creatine monohydrate. This is crucial.

5-7 grams of glutamine powder. This is also crucial.

The total amount of insulin that you will be using daily is roughly 15-45 IUs depending on how many carbohydrates you can eat that day. During dieting periods, the total amount of insulin will be greatly reduced.

Typically, three injections of insulin are used daily. The first is taken immediately upon awaking; this is an appropriate time to use the Humalin "R". The second shot is taken mid-day and Humalog is recommended. The last injection is taken immediately after the workout of the day. If you are doing a double split training program, then take one shot after each workout and adjust your other injection accordingly. Do not take an injection too late at night; you want to be able to stay awake through the entire period of action so you can monitor yourself for signs of low blood sugar.

Anyone who is going to use insulin should take some time to familiarize him or herself with the glycemic index. The glycemic index is a ranking of foods based on how they effect the body's blood sugar levels. There are many resources that provide elaborate listing of many types of foods including fast foods. For our purposes it is merely important to identify the foods with high glycemic index scores to consume with the insulin injection. Below is a list of foods (or sugars) that scored very highly on the glycemic index.

Whole Foods or Candies

Jelly Beans

Dates

Sugar types
(in ascending order; Maltose elevates blood sugar the most)

Lactose

Honey

High fructose corn syrup

Glucose

Glucose tablets

Maltodextrin

Maltose

Conclusion
For many, insulin may seem like the perfect bodybuilding drug. It's legal, cheap, effective, and easy to obtain. However, the decision to use insulin is not one that can be made lightly. At worst, the misuse or abuse of anabolic steroids will probably result in no more than elevated liver enzymes and a host of undesirable cosmetic side effects. Improper use of insulin will result in much more serious consequences, including death. Bodybuilders must first ask themselves if they possess the necessary maturity and intelligence to responsibly use this hormone. Look before you leap my friends.
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Old 02-25-2004, 10:06 AM
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This chart show how long & how active the different types of slin are in the body.
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Old 02-25-2004, 10:06 AM
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This is from insulin.txt on the ripped canadians board.
INSULIN AND GROWTH HORMONE
Growth hormone (GH) is one of the most sought after bodybuilding drugs due to its' legendary abilities to strip off body fat and increase muscle mass. The former is accomplished through direct lipolysis (fat release from adipocytes), which GH does to an incredible degree. Muscle mass acquisition is accomplished through: the direct stimulation of protein synthesis, increasing amino acid uptake by muscle cells, and by greatly stimulating IGF-1 synthesis in the liver. It is this last point that is of interest to us because it is the main anabolic mechanism for GH, and it is also where insulin comes in to play. More than half of GHs' anabolic effect is due to IGF-1 production, but unfortunately this is quite often wasted. This is because IGF-1 has an extremely short half life in the bloodstream, so it usually doesn't reach many target tissues (muscles for our interest) to exert maximum anabolic effect. To rectify this situation, insulin can be used to increase the amount of an IGF-1 binding protein (specifically IGF1-BP3) that actually helps IGF-1 to reach the muscles and exert its' extreme anabolism. Insulin also reduces the amount of "bad" IGF1 BP's, (BP's 2 and 4) that would normally interfere with IGF-1 uptake and use by muscle. To say that there is a synergistic effect between insulin and GH doesn't do the combination justice. It makes me shudder to think of the hundreds of thousands of dollars spent on GH, without using it to the maximum anabolic potential. From a fat loss perspective, GH is incredible. It should directly negate the lipogenic effect of insulin, leaving you with one KICK ASS combination.
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I do not know the origin, but this has been passed around quite a few times.

THE SKINNY ON INSULIN

There has been increasing popularity, and curiosity, concerning exogenous use of "the most anabolic hormone in the body". This makes it necessary to inform people how to maximise muscle mass acquisition and minimise horrid body fat accumulation when using it. The following is a detailed description of the effects of exogenous insulin use, combined with several other common bodybuilding drugs, from a muscle anabolism and fat catabolism point of view.
*WARNING*
Morons and bodybuilding novices should not consider insulin use, because it has one of the highest potentials for danger of all bodybuilding drugs. Its' use requires complete discipline and control over ones' environment. Insulin misuse should not be taken lightly because death's from it occur almost weekly. If that doesn't scare you, consider this: it can make you very, VERY, fat.
Before we delve in to the insulin alchemy, we should understand why insulin does such a good job of muscle and fat accumulation. Of course insulin is known as "the storage hormone", which means that it stores various macronutrients in different body tissues. Protein storage comes directly from amino acid uptake and protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. This is what we want. Fat storage comes from: directly reducing fat release from fat cells (adipocytes), increasing the rate at which the other macronutrients are converted in to fat, and inducing fat storage. This is what we don't want. Carbohydrate storage also occurs, but only significantly in special circumstances (discussed later). Now the fun part.

INSULIN AND ANABOLIC STEROIDS
Of course when everyone thinks of bodybuilding drugs anabolic steroids (AS) are the first things to come to mind, but how do they work with insulin? VERY WELL! AS decrease insulin induced fat accumulation through a number of ways. One is through creatine synthetase, which is an enzyme that goes crazy after workouts trying to store carbohydrates in the muscles (as glycogen, creatine phosphate etc.). For every gram of carbohydrate stored in muscle, roughly four grams of water go along with it (this is how creatine monohydrate achieves such dramatic results). How does this relate to insulin and AS? Well, the "harder" AS (exemplified by oxymethelone) increase creatine synthetase levels dramatically, giving insulin a place to do its' job and store carbohydrates. Okay, this also counts for a combined anabolic effect, but it prevents insulin from converting any "excess" carbohydrate in to fat (which would subsequently be stored)! AS also decrease levels of the main fat storage enzyme that insulin increases (called lipoprotein lipase). A big effect is through glucocorticoid antagonism, which means that AS indirectly increase insulin sensitivity (as well as act anti-catabolically). This allows insulin to bind to its' receptors more easily and accomplish its' job rather, than converting more macronutrients in to fat. Finally, the demand for nutrients by muscles is so high, in an AS enhanced state, that there is rarely any excess of nutrients to actually be stored as fat! A mere 400 mgs of enanthate didn't allow me to accumulate fat whether I was using insulin or not.
From a muscular anabolic perspective, there is a synergistic effect between AS and insulin. This is because they both directly stimulate protein synthesis as well as other mechanisms. One such mechanism involves AS hepatic mediated somatomedin release. Simply put: IGF-1 production in the liver. Again, the more powerful the AS, the more IGF-1 release, with orals having a much greater effect than injectables. Insulin increases the duration of time that IGF-1 is active in the bloodstream, and enhances receptor mediated IGF-1 activity (all through enhancing specific IGF-1 binding proteins). Another great combined effect is that insulin reduces the amount of Sex Hormone Binding Proteins (SHBP) in the blood stream. This allows more AS to be active and do their job of making you grow! Great effects were seen while using 10 units of insulin only three times a week, with AS. For the first few weeks of my next cycle I'm not going off the stuff, and I expect the effects to be scary!

INSULIN AND THE C/A/E STACK
In case you've been living on Mars for the past few years, CAE stands for Caffeine, Aspirin, and Ephedrine. This stack has been shown to synergistically strip off fat, while preserving muscle mass. It is considered here because it is the minimum requirement, while using insulin, to prevent you from looking like the StayPuft marshmallow man. Also of benefit is that it is cheap and easily accessible. Using three times a day helps slow the fat accumulation, but strict dietary control is also necessary. The ephedrine: suppresses appetite, stimulates thermogenesis, and promotes and fat release from cells (beta receptor, and catecholamine, mediated), while the other two components of the stack increase thermogenesis by inhibiting certain enzymes and transmitters that try to slow down the thermic effect. Ultimately the appetite suppression effectiveness of ephedrine wears off, but this is replaced by a greater thermogenic effect (5-deiodinase, or Beta-3, mediated). The CAE stack does nothing for muscle anabolism in a hyper caloric situation, but that's what the insulin is for.

INSULIN AND CLENBUTEROL
This "soon to be classic" post-cycle stack not only increases muscle mass, but keeps fat off at the same time. Fat loss from clen is legendary for the first two weeks. After that time, the beta-2 receptors that it activates, attenuate (because of the extremely high binding specificity), dropping the fat burning effects to minimal levels. There should still be beta-1 receptor activation (which stimulates fat release from adipocytes) and beta-3 stimulation (the big thermogenic wonders), because they attenuate slower or not at all (respectively) compared to beta-2 receptors. Clen is a much better fat burner than ephedrine, due not only to its' higher receptor specificity, but also due to it's extremely long half life (the exact reason it's not approved for use in humans). This means that the drug is constantly burning fat, especially at night when serum glucose, and insulin, are low. Using aspirin and caffeine might slow the receptor attenuation, or at least increase the thermogenesis while its there (I can certainly attest to this!). Why hasn't anyone done this sooner? Clen, like AS, directly combats the fat storing enzyme that insulin promotes (lipoprotein lipase again) in white fat. However it actually increases this enzymatic activity in brown fat (hence the thermogenesis) and muscle. The latter event could promote muscle anabolism through a similar mechanism to HMB, or at least increases muscular fat storage (merely increasing muscle size). This may not seem significant, but the way that people are going nuts over synthol, you never know! The mechanism of action of clens' muscle building effect is not known, but it appears to be anti-catabolic rather than directly anabolic. It should be noted that this anticatabolism is not beta receptor mediated , and therefore does not attenuate. At any rate, the combined effect of the two drugs can be noticeable muscle gain while keeping fat off for the first two weeks. Can fat accumulation be slowed with this stack continue past this time? I'll let you know!

There has been increasing popularity, and curiosity, concerning exogenous use of "the most anabolic hormone in the body". This makes it necessary to inform people how to maximize muscle mass acquisition and minimize nasty body fat accumulation when using it. The following is the second article dealing with the effects of exogenous insulin use, combined with several other bodybuilding drugs and supplements, from a muscle anabolism and fat catabolism point of view. Part I outlined insulin use combined with: anabolic steroids, the C/A/E stack, and clenbuterol.

INSULIN AND GROWTH HORMONE
Growth hormone (GH) is one of the most sought after bodybuilding drugs due to its' legendary abilities to strip off body fat and increase muscle mass. The former is accomplished through direct lipolysis (fat release from adipocytes), which GH does to an incredible degree. Muscle mass acquisition is accomplished through: the direct stimulation of protein synthesis, increasing amino acid uptake by muscle cells, and by greatly stimulating IGF-1 synthesis in the liver. It is this last point that is of interest to us because it is the main anabolic mechanism for GH, and it is also where insulin comes in to play. More than half of GHs' anabolic effect is due to IGF-1 production, but unfortunately this is quite often wasted. This is because IGF-1 has an extremely short half life in the bloodstream, so it usually doesn't reach many target tissues (muscles for our interest) to exert maximum anabolic effect. To rectify this situation, insulin can be used to increase the amount of an IGF-1 binding protein (specifically IGF1-BP3) that actually helps IGF-1 to reach the muscles and exert its' extreme anabolism. Insulin also reduces the amount of "bad" IGF1 BP's, (BP's 2 and 4) that would normally interfere with IGF-1 uptake and use by muscle. To say that there is a synergistic effect between insulin and GH doesn't do the combination justice. It makes me shudder to think of the hundreds of thousands of dollars spent on GH, without using it to the maximum anabolic potential. From a fat loss perspective, GH is incredible. It should directly negate the lipogenic effect of insulin, leaving you with one KICK ASS combination.

INSULIN AND THYROID HORMONES
With the huge increases in fat mass often accompanying insulin use, it seems like a simple solution to use thyroid hormone. Unfortunately, this doesn't work out very well. The reason is that thyroid hormone (specifically T3 and possibly T4) increases the amount of the "bad" IGF1-BP's mentioned earlier;IGFBP2 and IGFBP4. This may not seem like a big deal if one is not using drugs to stimulate IGF-1 synthesis, but IGF-1 levels are naturally stimulated through acts like stretching, and even natural testosterone/GH increases. All of these things normally accompany workouts (if you know what you're doing), which is the best time to take insulin. So by having all of the free IGF-1 bound by IGFBP3s' evil siblings, much of the anabolic effect of insulin is lost! Since T3 (triiodothyronine) is the main culprit, does that mean that T4 (tetraiodothyronine) can be used with no detrimental effect? NO, because T4 is mostly effective by converting to T3, which leaves you with the same problem. In fact, T4 could very well do the same thing. So if you want to maximize the anabolic effectiveness of insulin while minimizing bodyfat accumulation, use another fat burner and leave the thyroid alone.

INSULIN AND CREATINE
These compounds may have an anti-synergistic effect on each other, meaning that the combined effect is less than the sum of the individual effects. This possibility exists due to both components' ability to store water in muscle cells. If only a certain amount of water can be stored in the cells through each mechanism of action, then the anti-synergistic condition would exist. Although this condition is unlikely, it is worth mentioning for future experimentation purposes (lab rats know where to contact me). One definite advantage of this combination is that creatine is best absorbed by the muscles when insulin serum levels are high, insuring maximum effectiveness. BTW-if one is not doing something as fundamental as using creatine , there is no way they should be using insulin (so basically insulin use requires creatine use).

INSULIN AND HCA
Getting straight to the point, unless you are a moron and are eating fat during insulin use, or you have crappy insulin sensitivity, HCA is the second most effective fat gain inhibitor next to clenbuterol (which is only more effective due to its' ridiculously long half life). Hydroxy Citric Acid (HCA) is the main ingredient in Citrimax, and is a bargain in terms of its': relative effectiveness (when using insulin), cost (cheap, cheap, cheap), and availability. It works by inhibiting an enzyme called ATP citrate ly(s)ase (ACL), which basically converts ingested carbs to fat (which insulin promptly stores). This is normally NOT a big deal since ACL levels are normally low in most humans. However, insulin drastically increases ACL levels (which should make sense based on what you now know about insulin) accounting for most of the, responsible use, fat gain associated with insulin use. This is the most exciting find since the discovery of insulin as an anabolic! Using insulin and not gaining fat while gaining muscle? What a concept! Although I don't like to go into the details of use directly, I believe it is warranted here. 500-750mgs HCA should be taken with or within half an hour after the insulin shot. The usually recommended 250mgs is ineffective in dealing with the drastic increase in ACL levels. The HCA is taken with the shot because both start to work on about one half hour, so the HCA can begin to be effective at the same time that insulin is trying to increase ACL levels. This regimen (only 3X500mgs HCA) prevented fat gain during a day when I used 3 separate insulin shots! To make things even better there is a mild glycogen storage property associated with HCA use. Since ingested carbs cannot be converted to, or stored as, fat, they are generally stored (due to insulin) as glycogen in muscle giving the user a mild but noticeable pump (similar to the first day of creatine use). To end this portion of the list, I give HCA my highest recommendation as the number 1 supplement to use with insulin!

INSULIN AND FLAX SEED OIL
Short and sweet. Don't use flax seed oil with insulin, because it is fat and *will* be stored. The fat storage rules totally change when insulin is involved (I even avoid vitamin E capsules because mine are oil based).

INSULIN AND CLENBUTEROL UPDATE
This may look like an ideal combination at first, but research has shown why my muscle gains with this combo were minimal. Clen reduces insulin sensitivity, which means that insulin will have a much harder time doing its' anabolic job on muscle tissue. In addition to storing amino acids as muscle, insulin also stores carbs in muscle (which gives a very "full" look to the muscles), which reduced insulin sensitivity also hinders. This is also combined with the fact that clen reduces Glut-4 transporters (which allow glucose passage, and subsequent storage, into muscle) in skeletal muscle which probably accounts for clens' ability to reduce muscle glycogen concentration. On a lighter note, the fat burning effects of clen are potentiated by aspirin and caffeine (through personal experience) but still die off after a few weeks. Overall the only time I would recommend this combination occurs when coming off a cycle and every bit of anabolism is needed, otherwise the two drugs have a bad effect (from an anabolic standpoint) on each other.
SIMPLE TIPS TO MAXIMIZE ANABOLISM AND MINIMIZE FAT GAIN WITH INSULIN USE
-USE HCA
- use testosterone enhancing compounds to increase hepatic IGF-1 production
- only use insulin first thing in the morning or during/after workouts
- don't consume *any* fat 2 hours before (due to digestion time) or one hour after (due to induced enzyme activity) insulin use
- stretch to locally increase IGF-1 levels
- continually eat protein spread over the 4-5 hour duration of insulin activity
Finally, my favourite tip from Docroid: (I) use one shot of insulin just before a one hour workout and another shot two hours after the first. This creates synergism between the activity of the two shots by the later shot increasing in activity at the same time as the first shot decreases in activity, giving one a steady high insulin level at the most important time for anabolism! The only time I can say that I have seen dramatic results from insulin use (in terms of muscle anabolism) occurs when I do this "technique". HOWEVER, this is *very* tricky, in terms of serum glucose levels, even for seasoned insulin users. After using for a while, one can get used to the "feel" of insulin, blood sugar crashes, feeding times etc. but things change when one has a high level of insulin for 3-4 hours straight. I've had to eat every hour for three hours during one of my first attempts at this technique, but every two hours some other attempts. This is the only time I don't feel secure with my own insulin use. It's actually a good thing I can now recognize what a blood sugar crash feels like or I'd probably be dead due to this technique. I don't recommend this technique to anyone (and if that's not a big deal to you, just remember who is writing this) but if you feel like using it, make sure that you have had a couple of, (horrible) insulin induced, serum glucose crashes so you can recognize the early warning signs for when you have them (and you *will* have them).

INSULIN AND ANDROSTENDIONE
This combo has potential due to the interesting ability of insulin to increase levels of 17B hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase(17B), which is the enzyme that converts andro. into testosterone. If the increase is anything near the 17B levels that women have, this could become the stack for "natural" Ōbodybuilders. Another possible benefit of this stack is the idea that insulin probably exhibits mild anti-aromatase properties. If this occurs to any significant level it could be great in increasing the 17B levels even more! Although I hate to rain on this theory parade, I have to say that I can't notice ANY anti-aromatase activity from insulin(see first update section). Other possible benefits of this stack are shown in the first part of this series under:
"INSULIN AND ANABOLIC STEROIDS". Of course any potential similarities with AS would be drastically minimized with andro. It should be noted that the term "natural" is used quite loosely.

INSULIN AND CAPTOPRIL
Captopril is an angiotensin converting enzyme(ACE)inhibitor. Its' medical function is to reduce blood pressure. The reason it is included here is because it can have great effects with insulin and AS. I wouldn't reccomend captopril to anyone unless you are hypertensive or are using AS, because it can drop blood pressure to a sub-normal level. A reason captopril is so great is because it increases endogenous growth hormone levels, which you know can be amazing, assuming you've read last month's article. Another benefit to captopril is its' decrease in protein urea(protein loss in urine). No other drug I'm aware of, including AS, GH, or insulin, does this. This means that there will be more protein for those other anabolic drugs to assimilate! Another great use of captopril is the fat loss effect it has. For me it removes the necessity of HCA while using insulin (with AS). Although I still use one 250mgs of HCA/day just for good measure, I could probably get away witho!ut it despite the extreme carb intake after a workout. On a more esoteric note, long term captopril use actually prevents the formation of new Alpha2 adregenic receptors, which would further potentiate fat loss. Also, water retention is minimized through captopril use, which ties into the blood pressure effects. A potential risk while using captopril with insulin is that both drugs do a good job of making one tired/sleepy. Add in a late night, high intensity workout and you'rer ready for bedtime. One can NOT fall asleep while using insulin or you would experience all of the dangerous side effects associated with its' use. A final warning about captopril is that it increases the retention of potassium which makes hyperkalemia (too much potassium)a possibility. Unexcessive intake of this electrolyte should allow for avoidance of any problems in most people. This stack really doesn't have any problems associated with it, as long as common sense is used. It is merely a matter !of responsibility to point out every potential problem, sim!ply so it can be avoided. It should be noted that beta agonists and even working out increase proteinurea.

INSULIN AND ANABOLIC STEROIDS UPDATE
I hyped up insulin and AS in the first article in this series and I don't take any of it back. Simply put: this combo rocks! Using these compounds I put on 10lbs in 4days! It wasn't fat or subcutaneous water so it had to be muscle! Okay, it was just intracellular water, but the results are still dramatic to say the least. Three 14IU shots a day keeps my body in a ridiculously powerful state of anabolism. I recommend that 100grams of easily digestible protein be consumed during the 4 hour duration of the drug (while juicing). At this time it can be assumed that every gram will be assimilated. My HCA use is down to every third shot of insulin, and that may be slightly unnecessary. Please note that I am also using captopril which exhibits fat loss characteristics. I have no other big tips to offer, except (I'd) use insulin as much as possible while on a heavy cycle. Since I'm getting gyno while using anti-estrogens, I have to say that the anti-aromatase ability of insuli!n is next to non-existent. I'd like to note that another AS/insulin user was also using GH and still gaining fat, although I don't know what his eating was like.

INSULIN AND BETA-AGONIST UPDATE
I now realize that the use of beta-andregenic agonists is useless while on insulin. They decrease insulin sensitivity and increase cortisol levels. Their fat loss abilities are overshadowed by the negative effects on insulin and anabolism. HCA should prevent any responsible use fat gain, making use of these compounds all the more futile. The only time I'd recommend clen and insulin is when coming off a cycle(I obviously don't buy the "clen is not anabolic" theory).

QUICK INSULIN USE TIP
Although nocturnal feedings are effective in keeping positive nitrogen balance, and decreasing the diurnal (daily) morning cortisol rush, they should not be used while using insulin during the day. These nocturnal feedings may prevent insulin sensitivity from improving as much as normal, which would lead to less anabolism and greater fat gain. The use of AS or doing insulin shots only after workouts negate this suggestion.

STATEMENT ABOUT PERMANENT INSULIN DEPENDANCE
This potential side effect has been WAY too hyped by the anti-insulin propogandists. The idea of your own pancreas shutting down insulin production due to exogenous use is silly, and requires massive irresponsible use over extended time periods. Using myself as an example, I've been using insulin for 7 months straight. "WHAT?! Why did my pancreas not explode long ago?" You ask. For a simple reason: responsible use. I think that peoples fear of becoming dependant on insulin stems from minor knowledge about the testosterone feedback loop and AS cycles. Another part of this moronic recipe is peoples'ignorance about their own body and that brilliant bullshit anti-insulin propaganda. Quick lesson. Your body(beta cells of the pancreas)produces insulin in response to increased serum glucose levels, specific amino acids etc. As long as you don't shut this mechanism down from exogenous insulin use for long periods of time there should be no pr!oblems(unless you're ....ed to begin with). This means that you'd have to use insulin for 12 hours a day(3 perfectly spaced out shots)for over three months while insuring that you are not stimulating endogenous insulin production. Only a moron could do this which makes me wonder why it doesn't happen all the time). Another problem could arise if one uses an insulin shot every day at the same time for months on end. For example if one did a shot upon arising for many months, prior to eating. After a while the body would become conditioned(due to external/internal cues) to not produce insulin at that time. [note:I used morning insulin shots for 4 months without adverse effects] This situation could be easily remedied by tapering down the dosage of insulin over a period of weeks (although I hesitate to make the connection with AS). The bottom line is that using insulin before/after workouts for any length of time will not shut down the beta cells for long enough to cause this !problem. Remember that the beta cells are normally shut do!wn for at least 8 hours a day, while sleeping, and this happens for 80 years without adverse effect.
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Not sure who wrote this:

USE: IS IT WORTH IT?
Although I despise the anti-insulin propaganda, which I have contributed to in the past, it does have some merit. Personally I wouldn't care about people dying from insulin use, if only it didn't expose this drug in a negative light. I simply see insulin screwups as somebody sticking shit into their bodies that they know nothing about(meaning: it is on 8 thier 8 head).But in my position I have to wonder why the person tried the stuff in the first place. Lately I've been quite curious about peoples'insulin use because, to be honest, the shit just isn't that great! Don't get me wrong I'd never recommend another AS cycle without it, and you'd have to be a moron to spend $8000. on GH without learning the finer points of insulin use...but there's no reason for people to be using this stuff on a "try it and see" basis. Personally I wouldn't let some guy in an article stop me from trying this normally safe (with responsible use) drug, and I would never try to dis!suade anyone who "has to know" that it is like. But seriously, there's no other reason, for anyone not trying to maximize muscle mass, to use this drug. I don't like it but it's the truth, so I have to report it. For me(the genetic loser of the century), insulin doesn't do much without AS. I will always use it as a training aid, but that's only because I've already gone through the bullshit of planning out my body's reaction to the stuff. I also like the fact that I've come to know my body better than I could have without insulin, but that's only because I've had (too) many sugar crashes to help me feel my serum glucose status. To end this depressing section I have to restate that this is not intended as some "life-saving", anti-insulin propaganda. I'm just stating that insulin doesn't do that much (notable exceptions already mentioned) and certainly doesn't deserve all the hype (good or bad). [I think I'm going to cry now.]
Description: This description was taken directly from Brian Raupp's Anabolix Research page since this drug is so dangerous and his description is by far the most comprehensive that I have found on the internet.
Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas which helps to regulate glucose levels in the body. Medically, it is typically used in the treatment of diabetes. Recently, insulin has become quite popular among bodybuilders due to the anabolic effect it can offer. With well-timed injections, insulin will help to bring glycogen and other nutrients to the muscles.

In America, regular human insulin is available without a prescription by the name of Humulin R by Eli Lilly and Company. It costs about $20 for a 10 ml vial with a strength of 100 IU per ml. Eli Lilly and Company also produces 5 other insulin formulations, but none of these should be used by bodybuilders. Humulin R is the safest because it takes effect quickly and has the shortest duration of activity. The other insulin formulations remain active for a longer time period and can put the user in an unexpected state of hypoglycemia.

Hypoglycemia occurs when blood glucose levels are too low. It is a commonand potentially fatal reaction experienced by insulin users. Before an athlete begins taking insulin, it is critical that he understands the warning signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. The following is a list of symptoms which may indicate a mild to moderate hypoglycemia: hunger, drowsiness, blurred vision, depressive mood, dizziness, sweating, palpitation, tremor, restlessness, tingling in the hands, feet, lips, or tongue, lightheadedness, inability to concentrate, headache, sleep disturbances, anxiety, slurred speech, irritability, abnormal behavior, unsteady movement, and personality changes. If any of these warning signs should occur, an athlete should immediately consume a food or drink containing sugar such as a candy bar or carbohydrate drink. This will treat a mild to moderate hypoglycemia and prevent a severe state of hypoglycemia. Severe hypoglycemia is a serious condition that may require medical attention. Symptoms include disorientation, seizure, unconsciousness, and death.

Insulin is used in a wide variety of ways. Most athletes choose to use it immediately after a workout. Dosages used are usually 1 IU per 10-20 pounds of lean bodyweight. First-time users should start at a low dosage and gradually work up. For example, first begin with 2 IU and then increase the dosage by 1 IU every consecutive workout. This will allow the athlete to safely determine a dosage. Insulin dosages can vary significantly among athletes and are dependent upon insulin sensitivity and the use of other drugs. Athletes using growth hormone and thyroid will have higher insulin requirements, and therefore, will be able to handle higher dosages.

Humilin R should be injected subcutaneously only with a U-100 insulin syringe. Insulin syringes are available without a prescription in many states. If the athlete can not purchase the syringes at a pharmacy, he can mail order them or buy them on the black market. Using a syringe other than a U-100 is dangerous since it will be difficult to measure out the correct dosage. Subcutaneous insulin injections are usually given by pinching a fold of skin in the abdomen area. To speed up the effect of the insulin, many athletes will inject their dose into the thigh or triceps.
Most athletes will bring their insulin with them to the gym. Insulin should be refrigerated, but it is all right to keep it in a gym bag as long as it is kept away from excessive heat. Immediately after a workout, the athlete will inject his dosage of insulin. Within the next fifteen minutes, he should have a carbohydrate drink such as Ultra Fuel by Twinlab. The athlete should consume at least 10 grams of carbohydrates for every 1 IU of insulin injected. Most athletes will also take creatine monohydrate with their carbohydrate drink since the insulin will help to force the creatine into the muscles. An hour or so after injecting insulin, most athletes will eat a meal or consume a protein shake. The carbohydrate drink and meal/protein shake are necessary. Without them, blood sugar levels will drop dangerously low and the athlete will most likely go into a state of hypoglycemia.
Many athletes will get sleepy after injecting insulin. This may be a symptom of hypoglycemia, and an athlete should probably consume more carbohydrates. Avoid the temptation to go to bed since the insulin may take its peak effect during sleep and significantly drop glucose levels. Being unaware of the warning signs during his slumber, the athlete is at a high risk of going into a state of severe hypoglycemia without anyone realizing it. Humulin R usually remains active for only 4 hours with a peak at about two hours after injecting. An athlete would be wise to stay up for the 4 hours after injecting.
Rather than waiting to the end of a workout, many athletes prefer to inject their insulin dosage 30 minutes before their training session is over and then consume a carbohydrate drink immediately following the workout. This will make the insulin more efficient at bringing glycogen to the muscles, but it will also increase the danger of hypoglycemia. Some athletes will even inject a few IUs before lifting to improve their pump. This practice is extremely risky and best left to athletes with experience using insulin. Finally, some athletes like to inject insulin upon waking in the morning. After the injection, they will consume a carbohydrate drink and then have breakfast within the next hour. Some athletes find this application of insulin very beneficial for putting on mass, while others will tend to put on excess fat using insulin in this way.
Insulin use can not be detected during a drug test. For this reason, along with the fact that it is cheap and readily available, insulin has become a popular drug among the competitive athlete. However, before an athlete attempts to use insulin, he should educate himself and make himself aware of the consequences. One mistake in dosage or diet can be potentially fatal.
Effective Dose: 1 IU per 10 - 20 lbs. of body weight
Street Price: Can be bought over-the-counter for around $15 - 20 / 10 cc. bottle Humulin-R

The Physiological Role of Insulin in the Body: Insulin is a hormone which is manufactured in the pancreas and which has a number of important physiological actions in the body. It is an essential hormone in maintaining the body's blood glucose level so that the brain, muscles, heart and other tissues are adequately supplied with the fuel they require for normal cellular metabolism and normal function. Insulin also plays an essential role in fat and protein metabolism. For example, it promotes transport of amino acids from the bloodstream into muscle and other cells. Within these cells, insulin increases the rate of incorporation of amino acids into protein (amino acids are the building blocks of protein) and reduces protein break down in the body ("catabolism"). These physiological actions probably form the basis of speculation regarding the additional anabolic gains which might be made through the use of exogenously administered insulin.
Normally, blood glucose and blood insulin levels are not both elevated for any extended period of time as these two chemicals influence each other through a feedback system in the body. In the post-absorptive state, the blood insulin concentration tends to decrease during exercise, allowing the blood glucose to be maintained at or above resting levels and to provide increased energy supplies (fuel) to muscle cells. Following a meal, the blood glucose and amino acid levels rise (the absorptive state) and this triggers an increase in insulin release from the pancreas, driving glucose and amino acids from the blood into cells and maintaining the blood glucose level within a certain physiological (operating) range.
Intending users should also be aware that insulin stimulates lipid (fat) synthesis from carbohydrate ("lipogenesis"), decreases fatty acid release from tissues ("lipolysis") and leads to a net increase in total body lipid stores. The development of such increased body fat stores runs counter to the training goals of most body builders, athletes and those seeking to improve their physical appearance.
In striving to become bigger, stronger, more competitive or more physically attractive you should also remember that no matter what you do, your genetic make-up will have an influence on what you are able to achieve. It is important to realize that you cannot look exactly like the role model you admire because you have inherited a different set of genes.

The Glycemic Index Factor: Scientists have discovered that carbohydrate containing foods can be measured and ranked on the basis of the rate and level of blood glucose increase they cause when eaten. This measurement is called the "Glycemic Index" or "G.I. factor". The rate at which glucose enters the bloodstream affects the insulin response to that food and ultimately affects the rate at which this glucose (fuel) is made available to exercising muscles. (2)
Low G.I. foods are those measuring less than 50 on a scale of 1-100. Moderate G.I. foods are those with a reading of 50-70 and high G.I. foods are those measuring 71 or greater on this scale. Pure glucose has a G.I. of 100.

Foods which have a high G.I. produce a rapid increase in blood glucose and blood insulin levels. Examples of such high G.I. foods are potatoes, ice cream, many cereals particularly those with a high sugar content, some varieties of rice (e.g. Calrose) and sweets.
Foods with an moderate G.I. include some brands of muesli, some varieties of rice, white or brown bread, honey and some cereals.
Foods with a low G.I. produce a slower, smaller but more sustained increase in blood glucose levels. Examples of such low G.I. foods are pasta, varieties of high amylose rice, barley, instant noodles, oats, heavy grain breads, lentils, and many fruits such as apples and dried apricots. Low G.I foods are advantageous if consumed at least two hours before an event. This gives time for this food to be emptied from the stomach into the small intestine. Since these foods are digested and absorbed slowly from the gastro-intestinal tract, they continue to provide glucose to muscle cells for a longer period of time than moderate or high G.I. foods, particularly towards the end of an event when muscle glycogen stores may be running low. In this way, low G.I. foods can increase a person's exercise endurance and prolong the time before exhaustion sets in.(2)
High G.I. foods, preferably in the form of liquid foods or glucose drinks of approximately 6% in concentration, can enhance endurance during a very strenuous event lasting more than 90 minutes. ("strenuous" being defined as an athlete exercising at more than 65% of their maximum capacity). Some athletes may prefer food rather than liquid replenishment. Miller(2) suggests glucose enriched honey sandwiches, which have a G.I. factor of 75 or jelly beans, which have a G.I. factor of 80.

Miller suggests that an athlete who is engaged in a prolonged strenuous event should consume between 30 and 60 grams of carbohydrate per hour during the event.
High G.I. foods are also desirable after completing an exhausting sporting or training event when muscle and liver glycogen stores have been depleted, as they provide a rapidly absorbed source of glucose and stimulate insulin release from the pancreas. This insulin in turn stimulates the absorption of glucose into liver and muscle cells and its storage as hepatic and muscle glycogen, optimizing recovery and preparation for the next training or competitive event.
It has been shown that greatest benefit can be had if an athlete consumes these high G.I. carbohydrate foods as soon as possible after an event, preferably within an hour or less. It is further recommended that a high carbohydrate intake be maintained during the next 24 hours. Miller suggests eating at least one gram of carbohydrate per kilogram body weight each 2 hours after prolonged heavy exercise and at least 10 grams of high G.I. carbohydrate per kilogram body weight over the 24 hour period following this exercise.
For these reasons, an athlete who needs to maintain a high level of activity and performance on consecutive days or more extended periods of time should eat large amounts of high G.I. foods. However, a reasonable quantity of low G.I. carbohydrate food should be consumed before an event in order to improve endurance.
A Natural Method of Maintaining an Elevated Blood Insulin Level: Noting the hypothesis that an elevated blood insulin level may be of some advantage to bodybuilders, Fahey and his colleagues (1993) undertook an experiment in which they fed athletes a liquid meal of "Metabolol", which consisted of 13.0 g protein, 31.9 g carbohydrate and 2.6 g fat per 100 ml and provided 825 kJ of energy.
These researchers demonstrated that it is possible with such intermittent feeding during intense weight training to maintain a person's blood glucose at or above resting levels and at the same time, significantly increase insulin levels for the duration of the workout. This suggests a potentially effective and safe non-drug method for achieving a sustained elevation of blood insulin levels.
The authors of this research commented that "theoretically, this could provide a biochemical environment conducive to accelerating the rate of muscle hypertrophy and inhibiting protein degradation." However, the writer knows of no scientific studies which support this theory.
It is also relevant to note that muscle repair and growth begins in the hours and days following heavy exercise. It is doubtful that the use of insulin just prior to a workout will have any anabolic effects over and above natural processes, at this time. However, use of insulin prior to a workout will certainly expose you to much greater risk of serious harm. If you believe it is beneficial to have a higher insulin blood level during workouts, use the natural method outlined here.

Level of Risk Associated with Insulin Use: The use of all drugs carries some risk along with potential or perceived benefits, whether used for legitimate medical reasons or for other purposes. Insulin carries some risk even when used by an insulin dependent diabetic, as demonstrated by the observation that some diabetics run into difficulties with their treatment from time to time and often require assistance to restabilize their medical condition and insulin requirements. If used by a healthy non diabetic person in whom there is no natural deficiency in insulin production or reduced insulin sensitivity and in the absence of medical advice and monitoring, the risks may be substantially increased.

The major risk associated with insulin is a physical state known as hypoglycemia or "low blood sugar". This occurs when the level of glucose in the blood falls below a certain level required for normal body function. If the blood glucose level is substantially reduced below this normal level and if this is not quickly corrected, there is a risk of disorientation, collapse, coma, permanent brain damage and even death. Exercise and reduced food intake decreases the body's need for insulin and increases the risk of hypoglycemia associated with non-medical use of insulin.
It is difficult to provide a quantitative estimate of risk for any drug but on a scale of risk in relation to other non-medical and unsanctioned drug use, the use of insulin in this manner would rank towards the higher end of the scale. If zero equals "no risk" of harm to a person's health and ten equals "extreme risk", the use of anabolic steroids in a non-medical context might rate towards the middle of the scale of risk (particularly in the medium to long term) whilst insulin would rate higher. This level of risk associated with insulin use will depend on a number of factors:

Whether the person is a diabetic or not: non-diabetics and lean healthy people are more sensitive to the blood glucose lowering effects of insulin than diabetics;
Type of insulin: short acting insulin preparations are considerably safer than long acting preparations because with short acting types, it is much easier to avoid hypoglycemia with adequate food intake. With the non-medical use of longer acting insulin preparations, a person is at real risk of experiencing hypoglycemia late in the day, particularly in between meals, during or after exercise and when asleep. Regardless of this advice, some people are in reality using a mixture of short and long acting insulin preparations and exposing themselves to unnecessary increased risk.

Food intake: the type and timing of food consumed, its glycemic index (the glucose elevating effect) and the amount consumed, Body weight, Timing of insulin administration in relation to food intake and exercise.

Individual variation: two different people can respond in a very different way to a given dose of insulin, even if they are of a similar height, weight and other personal characteristics. The fact that a certain dose does not seem to cause a problem for one person does not mean this will be so for another. In addition, the response to insulin will also vary greatly within any one individual over time, according to changes in one or more of the above noted factors.
5-10 Units of a short acting preparation may have little or no observable impact on someone who eats a meal soon before or after but this dose could cause hypoglycemia and collapse in a person who has not consumed adequate food in close proximity to the time when the insulin begins to take effect (insulin starts to take effect within 5-10 minutes if injected by intra-muscular route and in 30-60 minutes if injected by subcutaneous route). Foods with a high glycemic index will maintain the blood glucose level for a short period of time, perhaps an hour or so whilst those with a low glycemic index will provide for more sustained glucose levels.

Risk Reduction Advice: Given the risks of using insulin for non medical purposes, the best advice one can give is not use it in this way. Even the body building magazines such as "Muscle Media 2000" advise: "If you're thinking about using insulin, think twice - it's really risky!"(3) However, if you are not persuaded by this advice and are determined to pursue its use in the hope of achieving some additional anabolic or other gains, you should take the following precautions:
Consider using the natural method of raising your blood insulin level during workouts by consuming glucose containing fluids at intervals during exercise. These fluids may have a protein sparing effect and at the same time, will help maintain keep your blood glucose and blood insulin levels. However, if you decide to use insulin, you should consider the following advice:

Always use insulin in the presence of someone else who knows about and understands the exact risks of using insulin in this manner, so they are able to act quickly and appropriately should something go wrong;

Always use a sterile needle and syringe every time and a clean injecting technique (e.g. don't touch the needle or the skin where you are going to inject, with your fingers and don't breathe on or cough over the injection site before or after injecting.)
Be aware that 1.0 ml of insulin contains one hundred International Units (100 IU), 0.1 ml of insulin contains ten (10) IU and 0.01 ml contains one (1.0) IU. So take care in measuring out your insulin, It is very concentrated!

Note that 0.01 ml is the volume contained in the space between the smallest graduated markings on a 1.0 ml Terumo diabetic syringe;
Inject by the subcutaneous route (injecting just under the skin and preferably in the abdominal area or outer part of the upper thigh), not intramuscularly or intravenously as using the latter routes can lead to a rapid rise in blood insulin level and a sudden hypoglycemic episode;
Alternate your injection sites in order to minimize tissue damage ("lipoatrophy" or "lipohypertrophy";

Always use a short acting, "regular" insulin (e.g. Actrapid, Insulin Neutral, Humulin R, Hypurin Neutral) rather than a longer acting insulin preparation (e.g. Semilente, Lente or Ultralente);
Use a human insulin rather than an animal insulin preparation if possible (there is little animal insulin available now);
Start with no more than 5 IU (0.05 ml) of this short acting/ regular insulin preparation and increase the dose gradually over a period of one week, to a dose no higher than 20 IU (0.20 ml) per day. Doses above this will expose you to progressively greater risk and most body builders who use insulin believe there is no advantage in taking doses higher than this. Anecdotal evidence amongst bodybuilders suggests increased doses leads to excess bodyfat accumulation.
The writer would caution against users falling into the trap of thinking: "If 20 units is good, 40 units will be twice as good" or "Joe says he injected 20 units and it didn't affect him, so it will be safe for me to inject 30 or 40 units". All drugs have a therapeutic dose range and above this, may be toxic or even lethal. If you are not diabetic, your body does not require additional insulin and there is no therapeutic range for you. In addition, people are different and often respond differently to drugs. An individual may also respond differently to the same drug in the same dose at different times, depending on a wide range of factors such as their general health, alcohol or other drugs taken, food eaten, exercise undertaken before, during or after drug administration and so on.

Don't use a medium or long acting insulin in the middle or latter part of the day, as you may very well experience a hypoglycemic attack whilst you are asleep. If this happens, neither you nor anyone else will be aware of or able to respond to your urgent need for glucose, in order to prevent possible serious harm.
Dietary Guidelines:
Close attention to diet is extremely important in people using insulin, whether this is for legitimate medical purposes or for other reasons. You can reduce your risk by consuming an adequate amount and mixture of high and low G.I. carbohydrate foods and drinks immediately after using insulin and at regular intervals (every 2-3 hours) throughout the day.

High G.I. carbohydrates (e.g. sweets, soft drinks and ice-cream) will raise your blood sugar quickly and prevent early hypoglycemia. Low G.I. carbohydrates (e.g. white pasta, high amylose rice, softened whole grain breads and instant noodles) are metabolized more slowly and will keep your blood glucose level up over a more extended period of time, when the medium acting insulin preparations begin to take effect;

55-65% of your total daily energy intake should be in the form of carbohydrates, 15-20% as protein and ~20% as fat. You should seek advice from a dietitian about your daily requirements but most heavy training athletes need to consume between 3,000 and 5,500 Calories per day (depending on the sport and level of training) and between 450 and 800 grams of carbohydrate each day. If you are a body builder who weighs 100 kg and your total energy requirements are calculated to be 4,000 calories/ day, you should aim to eat approximately 570 grams of carbohydrate each day. If your total energy requirements are calculated to be 5,000 calories/ day, you should aim to eat approximately 720 grams of carbohydrate each day.
Divide up your calculated total daily carbohydrate requirements over the course of your waking hours and consume frequent carbohydrate meals throughout the day. For example, if you require 4,000 calories per day, you might eat six meals of 650-700 Calories at 2-3 hour intervals.

This would mean eating approximately 90-100 grams of carbohydrate each meal, which for example you will obtain from 7 slices of bread alone or 4-5 slices of bread with 1 Ĺ tablespoons of honey or 500 ml of Sustagen or 3 slices of bread eaten with a 450 gram can of baked beans. You can refer to the attached food tables to work out your own requirements according to your own food preferences. You will need to choose a mixture foods from this table with a high, medium or low G.I., according to the nature and level of the training you are doing.

Once again, the writer would strongly recommend that you consult a dietitian who has an interest and experience in sports nutrition, in order to assist you design a dietary program which is best suited to your training goals and needs and to your food preferences. It is equally important that you find a dietitian with whom you feel comfortable telling about your insulin or other performance enhancing substance use, as their advice may otherwise be less than useful to you. If your dietitian does not know about and does not take such substance use into account, their advice may even add to the dangers associated with this substance use.

Always have a source of glucose or other high G.I. food ready at hand, in case you should begin to experience the symptoms of hypoglycemia. If this does occur, you should take this glucose or food without delay. You should eat or drink 15-20 grams of carbohydrate to begin with, which is contained in ~ 2 slices of white or brown bread, two glasses of milk, a half glass of soft drink, a tablespoon of honey or six jelly beans.

Other examples of glucose or other high Glycemic index carbohydrate preparations which you can use include: glucose tablets, glucose powder mixed in a small volume of water, barley sugar, or other sweets or if these are not immediately available, a sugar containing cordial, soft drink or plain sugar dissolved in water. This should be followed by an adequate low Glycemic index carbohydrate meal to prevent further hypoglycemia since the insulin levels are likely to remain high for some hours after the high Glycemic index carbohydrates are used up (metabolized) in the body.

The Crucial Role of the Friend or Peer Observer: If you are going to use insulin, it is essential that you have a friend or peer observer remain with you in case you experience problems. This person really needs to be with you for the whole time while the insulin preparation used is working.

Be aware that the risk of hypoglycemia occurs not at the time of insulin injection but rather, when the insulin starts to take effect. The risk will be greatest when your insulin blood level nears or reaches its highest level, usually 30-60 minutes afterwards if a short acting insulin preparation is used (by subcutaneous injection) and up to 20 hours later if a long acting insulin is used. Consider giving this paper to the person who is going to be with you when you use insulin, so they are aware of the things to look out for and what to do if you should experience a hypoglycemic reaction. The following instructions are for a peer observer or other person who may find you experiencing difficulty as a result of overdosing on insulin or any other drug or combination of drugs:

Instructions for the Peer Observer Assisting an Insulin User: If the person who has used insulin states that they are beginning to feel any of the following symptoms: faintness, dizziness, thirst, hunger, nausea, weakness, sweating, or if you observe that they have become: confused, disorientated, sweaty, drowsy, you should immediately give them glucose or a sugar containing drink or food as mentioned above. However, you should not try to give a person food or fluids if they are so drowsy that they are unable to swallow it, since they will be at risk of accidentally breathing in (aspirating) this food or fluid. If they cannot readily respond to your questions or your commands, you should assume they are unable to swallow anything safely.

If the person loses consciousness, you should place them in either a "lateral" or "coma" position, tilting the head fully back and jaw forward, in order to ensure an open airway and protect them from possible aspiration. Keep them in this position while medical assistance is being sought. You should then immediately call an ambulance by dialing "911", to get them to a hospital without any delay whatsoever. When the ambulance arrives, you should tell the ambulance officers exactly what the person has taken and what you have observed so the correct treatment can be provided promptly. This is essential as the person's life may be at stake.

Severe hypoglycemia or a combination of alcohol and other drugs, particularly drugs which suppress the central nervous system, can cause a person to stop breathing and their heart to stop beating. Remember, it only takes a few minutes for someone to suffer permanent brain damage or to die, once they stop breathing.
There are several common signs which may be apparent in someone who has overdosed from one or a combination of drugs. These include: very slow or shallow breathing or no breathing at all (listen close to the person's mouth and nose for breath sounds and look for movement of their chest wall); snoring or gurgling breathing in someone who is asleep; blue lips and fingernails (caused by lack of oxygen); no response to shaking, calling their name or pain (try pinching their earlobe and pressing down hard on one of their fingernails with a pen); very slow, faint pulse or no pulse at all.
What To Do in the Event of an Overdose: stay calm; squeeze earlobe/ press on fingernail of person in an effort to arouse them; if person responds, try to walk them around; if no response, check person's breathing and pulse; if unconscious but breathing, place in lateral or coma position; call an ambulance by dialing 911, they will give you advice on what to do, which might include: if there is a pulse but the person is not breathing, start artificial respiration, otherwise known as Expired Airways Resuscitation (EAR), without delay; if no pulse, start cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR); stay with the person, continuing to administer artificial respiration or CPR until the ambulance arrives. Keep them in the lateral or coma position if they are breathing on their own; tell the ambulance officers exactly what they may have taken and what you have observed.

The writer would like to emphasize once more that this paper should in no way be construed as an encouragement to people to use insulin in an effort to increase muscle mass, sports performance or appearance. Rather, it represents a pragmatic attempt at providing harm reduction advice to people who choose to take the risk of using insulin in this way, despite their knowledge of those risks.
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