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Old 05-16-2018, 05:36 AM
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rss Human Growth Hormone - Chromosomal architecture and placental expression of the human

Related Articles Chromosomal architecture and placental expression of the human growth hormone gene family are targeted by pre-pregnancy maternal obesity.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2018 May 15;:

Authors: Jin Y, Vakili H, Liu S, Menticoglou S, Bock ME, Cattini PA

Abstract
The human (h) placental lactogenic hormone chorionic somatomammotropin (CS) is highly produced during pregnancy and acts as a metabolic adaptor in response to maternal insulin resistance. Maternal obesity can exacerbate this "resistance" and a >75% decrease in CS RNA levels was observed in term placentas from obese versus lean women. The genes coding for hCS (hCS-A and hCS-B) and placental growth hormone (hGH-V) as well as the hCS-L pseudogene and pituitary growth hormone (GH) gene (hGH-N) are located at a single locus on chromosome 17. Three remote hypersensitive sites (HS III-V) located >28 kilobases upstream of hGH-N as well as local hCS gene promoter and enhancer regions are implicated in hCS gene expression. A placenta-specific chromosomal architecture including interaction between HS III-V and hCS but not hGH gene promoters, was detected in placentas from lean women (BMI 35 kg/m2), resulting in a predominant interaction between HS III and the hGH-N promoter, which was also observed in non-placental tissues. This was accompanied by a decrease in hCS levels, which was consistent with reduced RNA polymerase II and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? association with individual hCS promoter and enhancer sequences, respectively. Thus, pre-pregnancy maternal obesity disrupts the placental hGH/CS gene locus chromosomal architecture. However, based on data from obese women who develop GDM, insulin treatment partially recapitulates the chromosomal architecture seen in lean women and positively affects hCS production, presumably facilitating prolactin receptor-related signaling by hCS.


PMID: 29763375 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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