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Old 12-20-2007, 05:34 AM
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Palpation: feeling an injury with the fingers.



Pantothenic acid: a vitamin of the B complex.



Paraplegia: paralysis of lower portion of the body and of both legs.



Paresis: slight or incomplete paralysis.



Partially hydrogenated fats: polyunsaturated fats that are not fully saturated with hydrogen through a hydrogenation process.



Passive range of motion: movement that is performed completely by the examiner.



Pathogenic: disease producing.



PC: phosphocreatine; a high-energy phosphate compound found in the body cells; part of the ATP-PC energy system.



Peak bone mass: the concept of maximizing the amount of bone mineral content during the formative years of childhood and young adulthood.



Pectin: a form of soluble dietary fiber found in some fruits.



Pellegra: a deficiency disease caused by inadequate amounts of niacin in the diet.



Peptides: small compounds formed by the union of two or more amino acids; known also as dipeptides, tripeptides etc. depending upon the number of amino acids combined.



Perceptual-motor activities: physical activities characterized by the perception of a given stimulus and culminating in an appropriate motor, or movement, response.



Pernicious anemia: a severe progressive form of anemia that may be fatal if not treated with vitamin B-12. Usually cause by inability to absorb B-12, not a dietary deficiency of B-12.



Pescovegetarian: a vegetarian who eats fish, but not poultry.



Pesticides: poisons used to destroy pests of various types, including plants and animals.



pH: the abbreviation used to express the level of acidity of a solution: a low pH represents high acidity.



Phalanges: bones of the fingers and toes.



Phenylalanine: an essential amino acid.



Phosphagens: compounds such as ATP and phosphocreatine that serve as a source of high energy in the body cells.



Phosphates: salts of phosphoric acid, purported to possess ergogenic qualities.



Phosphorus: a nonmetallic element essential to human nutrition.



Phosphorus:calcium ratio: the ratio of calcium to phosphorus intake in the diet; the normal ratio is 1:1.



Phylloquinone: vitamin K; essential in the blood clotting process.



Physical conditioning: methods used to increase the efficiency or capacity of a given body system so as to improve physical or athletic performance.



Phytochemicals: chemical substances, other than nutrients, found in plants that are theorized to possess medicinal properties to help prevent various diseases.



Phytoestrogens: phytochemicals that may compete with natural endogenous estrogens; believed to help prevent certain forms of cancer associated with excess estrogen activity in the body.



Picolinate: a natural derivative of tryotophan; commercially it is bound to chromium as a means to enhance chromium absorption.



Plaque: the materiat that forms int eh inner layer of the artery and contributes to atherosclerosis. It contains cholesterol, lipids and other debris.



Plyometric exercise: type of exercise that maximizes the myotatic or stretch reflex.



Polyunsaturated fatty acids: fats that contain two or more double bonds and thus are open to hydogenation.



Positive caloric balance: a condition whereby caloric intake exceeds caloric output; the resultant effect is weight gain.



Postabsorptive state: the period after a meal has been absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract: it is usually a period of approximately 12 hours.



Potassium: a metallic element essential in human nutrition



Power-endurance continuum: in relation to strength training, the concept that power or strength is developed by high resistance and few repetitions, whereas endurance is developed by low resistance and many repetitions.



Pre-event nutrition: dietary intake prior to athletic competition; may refer to a 2-day or 3-day period prior to an event or the immediate pre-event meal.



Pritikin program: a dietary program developed by Nathan Pritikin which severely restricts the intake of certain foods like fats and cholesterol, and greatly increases the consumption of complex carbohydrates.



Principle of exercise sequence: relative to a weight training workout, the lifting sequence is designed so that different muscle groups are utilized sequentially so as to be fresh for each exercise.



Principle of overload: the major concept of physical training whereby one imposes a stress greater than that normally imposed upon a particular body system.



Principle of progressive resistance exercise (PRE): a training technique, primarily with weights, whereby resistance is increased as the individual develops increased strength levels.



Principle of recuperation: a principle of physical conditioning whereby adequate rest periods are taken for recuperation to occur so that exercise may be continued.



Principle of specificity training: the principle that physical training should be designed to mimic the specific athletic event in which one competes. Specific human energy systems and neuromuscular skills should be stressed.



Proline: a nonessential amino acid.



Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF): stretching techniques that involve combinations of alternating contractions and stretches.



Proteases: enzymes that catalyze proteins.



Protein: any one of a group of complex organic compounds containing nitrogen; formed from various combinations of amino acids.



Protein complementarity: the practice among vegetarians of eating foods together from two or more different food groups, usually legumes, nuts or beans with grain products, in order to ensure a balanced intake of essential amino acids.



Protein-sparing effect: an adequate intake of energy calories, as from carbohydrate, will decrease somewhat the rate of protein catabolism in the body and hence spare protein. This is the basis of the protein-sparing modified fast, or diet.



Provitamin A: carotene, a substance in the diet from which the body may form vitamin A.



Psyllium: a plant product that contains both water-soluble and insoluble dietary fiber.



Pyramid set: in relation to weight training, when you perform successive sets of an exercise either increasing the weight with each set (starting with a light or moderate weight) or decreasing with each set (starting with heavy weight).



Pyruvate: the end product of glycolysis. Under aerobic conditions it may be converted into acetyl CoA, whereas under anaerobic conditions it is converted into lactic acid.
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